Archive for April, 2009

ee-choc-bars-wcase1At this morning’s staff meeting, we were told that Bethany from Ten Thousand Villages in Goshen, Indiana included the following poem with her weekly order:





Chocolate, O, chocolate

How do I love thee?

Let me count the ways…

In fondue, flourless chocolate cake, chocolate chip cookies, in espresso drinks, beside espresso drinks, melted in a lovely mole, infused with mint, orange, packed with almonds, dark, milk, big pieces, little pieces, melty pieces, and many, many more.

All except “white chocolate”, which of course isn’t chocolate at all. Ooo – and chocolate with crystallized ginger – that’s a new favorite. And last, but not least, chocolate ice cream, or, as my sister calls it, “ice cream” – because what’s the point, really, she says, if there’s no chocolate in it?


Thanks Bethany for adding this spark to our staff meeting… we couldn’t agree with you more!


And for those of you who don’t know Ten Thousand Villages, what are you waiting for?! They’ve been leaders in the Fair Trade movement since the close of World War II and allies of Equal Exchange since our founding. Last year, was the 15th anniversary since they began purchasing our coffee… I think the first coffee they bought was Café Salvador.  Lilla Woodham celebrated the occasion by accompanying them on one of their educational delegations to visit Las Colinas, one of our farmer partner co-operatives in El Salvador. (more…)

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The following photo essay was written by Dary Goodrich, Chocolate Products Manager.  It first appeared in the April/May issue of What’s Brewing.

In September 2008, Equal Exchange launched our first single origin chocolate bar, using cacao beans from Panama. We have received nothing but superb feedback on this new bar, the Organic Panama Extra Dark (80% cacao content), which people are describing as rich, robust, well-balanced, chocolatey, fudge-like and more.

We are excited to have not only a new bar, but more importantly, a new producer partner – the COCABO co-operative in Panama. This winter, I was able to visit COCABO (the Multi-service Cacao Co-operative of Bocatoreña) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, with our Canadian friends and partners, La Siembra. The purpose of our trip was to continue to build the relationship between Equal Exchange and COCABO, learn more about the farmer co-operative, and finally to better understand all of the hard work they carry out to produce the wonderful cacao that goes into making this bar such a hit. Here’s a brief photo journal of some of the sights and people that made this such a wonderful experience. (more…)

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The following article by Steve Stroup, Member Services and Outreach Coordinator at Bloomingfoods, was originally posted on the Bloomingfoods websiteBloomingfoods has been a key and fundamental partner of Equal Exchange for over 15 years.  They have been instrumental in helping us envision and build an alternative model of trade that aims to restore dignity and fairness to small scale producers, supports sustainable agriculture, and connects consumers to small farmers.  Steve was one of seven food co-op representatives whom we invited to accompany us on a trip to Chiapas, Mexico last month to visit one of our farmer co-op partners.  Here’s his inspiring article which we are really proud and excited to share with all of you!


Co-ops, Equal Exchange, and the Struggle for Fair Trade


View from the coffee fields of Las Pilas

An Offer We Couldn’t Refuse
In the fall of 2008, Bloomingfoods was contacted by the Equal Exchange Co-op, known by us all as purveyors of fine and fairly traded coffee, tea, and chocolate. Their offer: would we like to send a representative on a spring tour they were organizing to Chiapas state in southern Mexico to visit the warehouses, processing facility, and farms of the CESMACH (Campesinos Ecologicos de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas S. C.) Co-op, from which it procures a significant portion of its Mexican coffee. They’d make the arrangements; they’d provide guides and translators; they’d hold our hands in the event of a screaming case of Montezuma’s revenge; we just needed to be there, with open minds and relatively sound bodies, anxious to learn, and with a willingness to share what we witnessed with folks back home. Without hesitation, we responded, “yes, of course”!   And I was lucky enough to get the nod.  What follows is an account of the trip, part mere travelogue but my best effort to share with you both some of the most significant and defining details of coffee production for Equal Exchange and, more importantly, the inestimable role which co-ops are making in the world of agricultural commerce and social justice.

Bloomingfoods likes Equal Exchange. A lot. Equal Exchange is dedicated to buying its coffee, tea, chocolate, and other products from cooperatives of small farmers, by which decisions concerning both business and community affairs are made democratically. In turn, Equal Exchange sells much of its product to organizations such a Bloomingfoods, itself a member-owned cooperative. By trading directly with grower co-ops, Equal Exchange eliminates the multiple layers of middlemen common in the coffee trade, ensuring that a larger percent of the consumer’s dollars reaches the people who do the hard, skilled work of growing and harvesting fine coffee.  Its commitment to “fair trade” coffees and the folks producing them is no better reflected than in the articles of their agreement with grower co-ops, such as CESMACH. These are:

1) To pay a fair, previously agreed upon price. This price will always be at least $0.05 above market price and will never sink below $1.56 per pound. Due to the extremely high quality of CESMACH coffee, their growers typically receive even more. But fair trade is about more than mere price per pound. Thus:

2) Equal Exchange offers its growers a reliable long-term relationship which they can count on year after year.

3) Equal Exchange offers pre-harvest financing, an absolutely critical condition for the poor indigenous farmers struggling to survive and raise their families through subsistence agriculture and the production of coffee.

4) Equal Exchange pays a “social premium” above the base price, this money to be used by the grower cooperative to invest in other socio-economic development projects.  In exchange for these considerations, Equal Exchange insists that:

5) The coffee production be conducted in an environmentally sustainable manner, and

6) That the grower co-op operates in a democratic, politically empowering fashion that respects the rights and interests of all its members.

Through such arrangements, Equal Exchange has arguably done more than any other organization in the last 15 years to change the way coffee is grown, bought, and sold around the globe. Its commitment to fairly traded products, organic, sustainable production practices, and innovative systems of agricultural commerce is a non-pareil in the world of international agriculture.  Bloomingfoods is thus delighted to be a leading outlet for the products it offers.

The goals of our trip were several, but they revolved around giving representatives from seven selected co-ops a chance to actually see and thus more intimately understand the conditions under which coffee is grown and processed in southern Mexico. It was also hoped that we would gain a fuller appreciation for the role which coffee plays in the political, social, and economic lives of producers, and also to personally express to the growers how much their efforts and their coffee are appreciated.  Through such trips, little by little, Equal Exchange is doing its part to forge stronger connections between the growers and the stores and customers who purchase their coffee.

Logistically, our trip would consist of three principle stages:  first, via multiple flights and a bus ride, we would make our way to San Cristobal de las Casas, a beautiful old colonial city in the heart of the state of Chiapas.  From there we would make a half-day drive to Jaltenango, a town of 30,000 inhabitants, and the site of the warehouses and offices of CESMACH (Campesinos Ecologicos de la Sierra Madre de Chiapas S. C.). Finally, we would make the long haul to Las Pilas, a village of 33 families that was so small and so remotely located in the buffer zone of the El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve that I was unable to find it on even the best map of the region that I could reference.  Ah, it smelled to high heaven of adventure!

Phyllis, Nick, and Lilla

And so it was that at the crack of dawn on March 1st, I flew out of Indianapolis International, touched down briefly at Sam Houston, and then flew on to Mexico City. There I was united with my traveling companions. Our number was ten: enough to ensure lots of camaraderie, support, intellectual exchange, and fun but without being too unwieldy. Phyllis “Felicia” Robinson, from Equal Exchange, a former resident of Latin America and a veteran of many such trips, was our leader. She was assisted in this by her colleagues, Lilla Woodham and Nicholas Reid. The co-op reps were an interesting mix of ages and professional assignments. In addition to myself (the geezer of the group), these included: Kevin Quinn, Produce Manager at People’s Co-op in Ann Arbor; Don Pierce, I.T. Systems Manager at Harvest Co-op in Boston; Rita York, Assistant General Manager of Community Mercantile in Lawrence;  Margaret Mills, Grocery Manager at People’s Food Co-op in Lacrosse, Stephanie Catlett, Marketing Coordinator/Newsletter Editor for New Pioneer Co-op in Iowa City, IA, and Kathy Piedl, Wellness Manager at Hungry Hollow Co-op, Chestnut Ridge, NY. Following a brief layover in Mexico City, we all piled into a plane for a short flight to the Chiapas state capital, Tuxtla Guttierez. There we were met by a representative of CESMACH, who herded us into a bus for the hour drive to San Cristobal.

From the moment we drove out of the Tuxtla airport, the adventure was begun in earnest. In a light rain and howling wind, we had a wild ride on the new highway that connects Tuxtla and San Cristobal. Most drivers–including our own–made full use of the two wide two lanes of the highway, honking, tail-gating, flashing their bright lights, braking and accelerating fiercely, weaving from lane to lane as they raced up and down and around the winding road. I sat by an open window in a reverie, my arm hanging out, reveling in the soft rain, wonderful mountain air, and exhilarating ride.

Thanks to the preliminary work done by our Equal Exchange guides, the patrona of the Hotel Pasada Isabel was expecting us, and she and an assistant quickly prepared a simple meal of eggs, tortillas, fruit, and tea. The meal was hot and bountiful, for which we were grateful. San Cristobal sits at almost 7000″, and when the sun sets the temperature drops precipitously. In addition, the public areas of the hotel were almost completely open to the elements and the rooms themselves were unheated.  Consequently, we huddled, somewhat chilled, over our meals wearing the few articles of heavy clothing we’d brought. We were relieved at the end of the meal to discover our beds covered in warm blankets, and at the end of a very long day of travel we all happily fell into sleep.

Gustavo Castro Soto

The next day was passed mostly in meetings. First our entire group assembled in the chilly hotel meeting/dining room for an introduction by Phyllis, Nick, and Lilla to the history and goals of Equal Exchange, as well as to review the rough itinerary we would follow on the trip. Clearly, a lot of planning had gone into the trip, but we’d be doing a lot of seat-of-the-pants adjusting as we went along. This concluded, we took our first walk through the scenic streets of San Cristobal to the offices of Otro Mundos AC/Amigos de la Tierra. Here international policy analyst, Gustavo Castro Soto met us. For the next two hours, Senior Castro presented to us a fascinating, albeit somewhat discouraging, socio-economic history of Mexico and Chiapas, with a special focus on the environmental degradation being wreaked by inappropriate agricultural, mining, and development practices. It was a tale dark in corrupt governmental action, misguided international treaties, and environmental and human abuses. Yet in the end it was not without hope that some positive change is happening, in part through the work of co-ops such as Equal Exchange and CESMACH.

Street view from our hotel

Following our meeting with Soto, we ate a late lunch, convened another meetings to prepare for the following day’s trip to Jaltenango, and then indulged ourselves in a brief outing for supplies.  This was our last chance to check email at any of the innumerable email cafes that littered the city and to visit the large open-air market for additional parkas and scarves for evening air we now realized was colder than we’d expected. The mountain winds continued to chill us, and we were all anxious to acquire a few extra garments to ensure that we didn’t freeze in the mountain village to which we were headed. And what a great opportunity it proved. For it allowed us to wander and dicker among the scores of indigenous craftsmen vending their wares in the courtyard of one of Chiapas’ larger churches.

But this is all by way of mere prelude. For the real story of the trip is the story of the CESMACH co-op, and the difference it is making in the lives of its member-farmers and in the stability and health of the fragile biosphere in which they live. Now confidently decked out in new woolen and heavy cotton scarves, parkas, leggings, and gloves, we were anxious to be on our way.

CESMACH: THE Co-op Difference


Arising early the next morning, we piled sleepily into a van and headed into the real boondocks, driving through a landscape dusty and brown in the waning days of the dry season, passing through quiet, colorful villages coming slowly to life in the warming sun of morning. After about four hours, we arrived in Jaltenango and the headquarters and warehouses of CESMACH. We proceeded immediately to the CESMACH offices, where we were met and warmly greeted by several members of the staff and board.  Our day then began in earnest, with 10 intense hours filled with meetings and with watching coffee being received, tested and evaluated for quality and condition.

The meetings began with a review of the history of coffee growing in the region. Prior to the establishment of CESMACH, we learned, life for the coffee growers in the villages was arduous and largely without hope of improvement. Originally subsistence farmers, villagers in the area had gradually begun introducing coffee into their mix of crops, hoping in that way to diversify and to develop a source of income for the purchase the myriad consumer goods and services they could not locally grow or provide.  But their isolated location, poverty, and competition from competing growers in other regions rendered even this a dubious pursuit. Their farming practices at the time were purely conventional, including the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and the removal of canopy species and understory to permit the planting of corn, beans, and other food crops.

The addition of coffee to the mix did nothing to improve conditions, environmentally or economically. The growers simply planted coffee trees on the steep mountain slopes, sprayed them with whatever cheap synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers they could afford, then hoped that the trees and coffee berries could withstand the fierce summer storms to which the region is subject long enough to mature and be harvested. Once this harvest was picked, the growers then waited for the arrival of the “coyotes,” middlemen who systematically prowled the region during the harvest season, negotiating coffee deals with individual growers. The growers, being as they were perpetually broke and without recourse to other funding, had no option but to sell their precious beans for the pittance offered. Thus was the environment abused and the farmers plunged deeper into a cycle of poverty, weariness, and despair.

Finally, broke and disgusted, the growers determined to do something different, and in 1994 they banded together and the CESMACH cooperative was born.  With the creation of CESMACH, producers put themselves into a position to begin operating under a different system. But of what would that system consist. What would be its methods, its processes, its goals?

Among the first decisions made was that growing practices would be organic and fully sustainable.  As it is with organic farmers everywhere, protection of the land, itself, was immediately elevated to primary importance.  So, not only are synthetic pesticides and fertilizers banned, but many additional practices have been introduced. For instance, in order to minimize erosion, the fields are painstakingly terraced, a particularly difficult feat in a region that is so heavily forested and exceedingly steep.  Further, rather than merely discarding waste materials—chiefly pulp and wastewater—special efforts are made to compost or otherwise purify them prior to release. And instead of removing the forest canopy, it is carefully cultivated to ensure that it shields the coffee from the intense sun and the slopes from the driving rains.

But the production of exquisite, shade-grown organic coffee is only the first goal of CESMACH, and not so much an end unto itself as a means of achieving a great deal more. First, working co-operatively under the umbrella of CESMACH put the growers in a position to negotiate much better, “fairer” selling arrangements with buyers. To this end, the co-op rather than the individual farmers now negotiate crop sales, and selling in larger quantities vastly enhances the leverage they can bring to bear. This was further facilitated by the construction of warehouse and storage facilities,  Now, instead of briefly holding and selling their coffee out of their homes and villages, the growers consolidate and hold their coffee in an efficient warehouse system until fair prices can be negotiated. The strength and flexibility this gives the villagers can be no better expressed than in “Coffee’s David and Goliath Story,” which describes the initially devastating but ultimately empowering incident which led to the partnership which now exists between CESMACH and Equal Exchange. Through such measures, CESMACH works to achieve a greater measure of prosperity for the villagers and with that the preservation of the local culture.

Endangered Horned Guan

Another very important consideration to CESMACH is that coffee cultivation methods contribute not only to the health of the coffee fields, themselves, but also to that of the fragile environment in which they are located. Many of the villages belonging to CESMACH are located in the periphery of the El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve. This is a an area rich in rare and unique plant and animals species, many of which are threatened with extinction, chiefly due to habitat destruction. Growing coffee under a natural canopy, carefully terraced, and using organic methods clearly produces a superior coffee but also protects the natural environment.  Recycling of the berry pulp into compost and filtering in deep wells the acidic water created in fermenting the coffee beans further contribute to the preservation of this delicate biosphere.

Beyond environmental conservation and organic coffee production, CESMACH has also launched a variety of social development projects: community-owned chicken production operations, organic fruit orchards, expanded composting activities, and promotion of public health awareness on issues such as cervical cancer. All these efforts are directed not only toward diversifying incomes but also to enhancing life in general for all the villagers. Octavio Carbajal of CESMACH expresses it thus: “We are conscious of the fact that we will not see economic or environmental change if we do not first make changes in our society, recover and strengthen human values. In CESMACH that is our priority.”

CESMACH Warehouse

Having thus learned something of the philosophy and goals which guide CESMACH, we were very excited to visit the warehouse and receiving areas, and to see those philosophies put into action.  Just as our meetings with our CESMACH hosts explored the co-ops commitment to wise, sustainable agricultural and economic practices, so did our visit to the warehouse operations permit us to witness the extraordinary care taken to ensure that the co-op buys and sells only the finest coffees.  The basic process is simple but the standards are rigorous.

Here’s how they go about it.

Inspecting coffee

Upon the arrival of a grower with his crop, samples of the beans are extracted from each of the 100+ pound burlap bags in which they are delivered. The sample beans are visually inspected for flaws, their moisture content is analyzed, and they are dechaffed to determine the percentage of chaff to bean. If the quality is not up to the highest standards, the beans are rejected outright (later, in the fields, we would see the pains to which the farmers go to prevent this costly outcome); if it is too wet, it will be purchased, but a lesser price will be paid since it will be necessary to further dry the beans in the sun on the large cement slab outside the building. If accepted as is, the farmer’s entire delivery is then carried in, loaded on to a large mechanical scale, weighed, then stacked in the area in which it will be held until it is sent for processing at a facility owned and operated jointly by CESMACH and three other co-ops. And the grower receives payment according to the previously reached agreement. From the processing facility, the coffee is  shipped to Europe, Asia, or the United States. Only then, in facilities such as those at Equal Exchange, will the coffee finally be carefully roasted, vacuum-sealed, then shipped to outlets such as Bloomingfoods for sale to consumers.

Stacking coffee on to scale

It is worth noting as an aside at this point that until very recently, CESMACH had no facilities for actually roasting coffee or a plan for selling it in Mexico. Indeed, throughout our trip we noticed that good, richly brewed coffee was a rarity, a luxury not available to most people. Recently, however, CESMACH has purchased a roaster and is working diligently to develop at least a small local market for its exceptional coffee.

And so a long and fascinating day passed, until by 10:00 pm we were starving and exhausted yet anxious to embark for the village and coffee fields early the next morning. Our gracious CESMACH hosts relieved us of our hunger and weariness by feting us at a local café, complete with live marimba music, hot and spicy local cuisine, and cool Coronas. By the time we collapsed in our beds around 1:00 a.m. we were indeed ready for sleep.

Bright and early we were again up, grabbed a quick breakfast, and then loaded our bags on to the roof of a CESMACH van that appeared in timely fashion to take us into the mountains. We were told that once the wet season hit, only 4-wheel drive vehicles even had a chance of making the journey, but now, before the summer rains had blown in, the van could make it.  The ride was long and rough, passing for a while through dry, lowland country, roughly farmed or grazed, with an occasional small village strung along the road.  As we proceeded, the pavement became poorer and more broken, the villages more widely spaced. Finally, the paved road went left and a dirt path forked right. We took the fork, and for the next hour and half we drove a circuitous route ever higher, higher into the mountains, the slopes becoming ever more lushly vegetated and the road more frequently washed out all or in part (still part of the aftermath of hurricane Stan, which struck the area in 2005).  And so we drove into an increasingly remote country until finally, rounding yet another bend, we saw our destination, the village of Las Pilas.

Las Pilas and the Growing of Organic, Shaded Coffee

The setting of Las Pilas is absolutely stunning, so far up the side of the mountain that we could look down hundreds of feet to see vultures circling, themselves hundreds of feet above the valley floor. And yet the mountains continue to rise up high above the village, beautifully enrobed in a mixed canopy of broad-leaf deciduous, pine, and palm trees. The village itself consists of thirty or so homes. Most that I entered were about 15′ x 20″ or 25′, consisted of only one or two rooms, were constructed of mud bricks, had cement floors (a recent improvement from dirt floors, we were told), and tin roofs raised above the walls to facilitate air flow. I saw only one refrigerator, but somewhere in each house was invariably a hand-cranked grinder for grinding corn and a corner space devoted to a small hearth where a wood fire served to cook the ubiquitous corn tortillas and other dishes. There was electricity, but not much: most of the houses were very dark, lit only by a single, very dim bulb, and even that was turned off shortly after dark. I saw no indoor plumbing: washing was done outside, and there seemed to be toilet facilities at about every three houses. These consisted of a toilet beside a cistern full of water. After using the toilet, one simply dipped a bucket of water, poured it boldly into the toilet, and let gravity carry it down a drain to, where?

Las Pilas home interior

Upon our arrival, the villagers gradually came out from their houses to meet us. After dropping our bags in a nearby home, we proceeded to the village school. There we met with representatives of most of the 17 families who are members of CESMACH, introducing ourselves, speaking a bit about why we were there, and expressing to them the high value placed on their coffee by our customers back home. This was actually quite an interesting endeavor, given that most of these folks rarely venture to a town and have no real conception of our co-op groceries. Still, they seemed impressed, albeit a bit confused, by the fact that Americans would travel so far simply to observe and learn about their coffee growing activity. From them, in turn, we began to learn first-hand of what that activity consisted.

Path to the coffee fields

Climate, terrain, grinding poverty and utter dependence on man, donkey, and nature for almost all energy input render coffee production in the mountains of Chiapas a manual, arduous, and very precarious vocation.  Those same conditions, together with major doses of incredible ingenuity and tenacity, also make it possible for the villagers to produce some of the finest coffee in the world.

Hand holding coffee branch

First, let’s talk field locations. There’s virtually no flat land in Las Pilas, and the orientation and vegetation of the slopes immediately surrounding the village are unsuited for coffee productions. Consequently, to our surprise, we learned that most of the “fields” are accessible only via a 1/4 hr to 1 hr hike along some of the narrowest and most precipitous trails I have ever walked.  We were hard pressed to keep pace with our village guides as they led us to the fields.  And by the time we arrived, we felt much more like resting than picking. But picking was what we were there to do, to experience, if only for an hour or so, for it was early March and the tail end of harvest season.  The last berries needed to be picked. This was actually the 3rd or 4th picking of the trees this season, in this way ensuring that the majority of the berries were picked at the peak of ripeness. Ours was the final picking of the season, and so we were instructed to pick all remaining berries, regardless of ripeness. Why? Because this coffee is grown under purely organic methods, without pesticides, herbicides, and other synthetic chemicals. Unpicked berries, either left on the trees or fallen to the ground, attract insects and disease, and so they must be removed from the fields. As we were to see in the next stage, the berries that were not entirely ripe would be sorted out, processed and sold, but not for Equal Exchange coffee. They would not be hauled to the CESMACH warehouse. Think rather of the wandering coyotes and of any of the popular supermarket brands with which most of us grew up on.

Sorting and Processing

Basket of beautiful coffee berries

After picking for little more than an hour, our group of 5 or 6 pickers had managed to assemble in our baskets three or four pounds of berries. Our hosts laughingly told us we’d need to pick up the pace a bit if we didn’t want to starve.  Four pounds, maybe. About $8 worth! After all that picking, and this doesn’t include all the work necessary to produce those berries: the planting, terracing, spreading of compost…the hours spend walking back and forth between the village and fields.  It was a shock. Our first tangible lesson in how hard these folks work to eke out a living.  And yet we were reminded, the price they earn through CESMCH is more than is paid by the coyotes to the growers not members of CESMACH.

After picking, the berries are poured on a tarp and the green and otherwise obviously bad specimens discarded. Again, these are sold to the coyotes for use in poorer general market coffees seen on supermarket shelves.

Rita skimming off the bad beans

Next, the “good,” ripe berries are poured into a large concrete sorting tank. Gravity and a ¾” hose stretched a half a mile or so up into the mountains then bring water to the tank. No pumps, no wells: just a slender hose and gravity. We watched in some amazement as the tank slowly filled with water and most of the berries sank. These, we were told, were good, solid berries, inside which both beans would be good. Others, however, floated to the top and were scooped off in a basket. Upon examination, we found that hail or insects had damaged all these berries, so that at least one of the two beans inside was bad. These berries, like the one ones previously sorted out, would also be sold to the coyotes.

Farmer depulping his berries

After discarding all the “floaters,” the drain plug at the bottom of one end of the tank is partially pulled, allowing water and beans to flow down a pipe toward another tank, the so-called “fermentation tank.” At this point, more labor occurs. Much more. The cherries must be depulped, the process whereby the beans contained in the berries are separated from the pulp and husks. This task is performed, like all other work in this neck of the woods, purely by hand. There is no electricity in this remote location, and the villagers eschew even small gasoline motors. Instead, they stand for hours, laboriously turning the crank as the coffee flows down. We all took a turn at the crank, and about 5 minutes was enough for us. The farmers stand there for hours at a time, turning, turning, turning…and this after a long day of picking.

As the coffee passes through the depulper, the husks and pulp pour on to the ground. They will be hauled off and composted. The beans, on the other hand, flow into the fermenting tank where they are first rinsed and then permitted to ferment for about a day. Fermentation is thought to accentuate the body and flavor of the coffee beans, but it must be done with great care because if the beans ferment for even a little too long they will be spoiled and an entire season of labor will have been for nothing.

Coffee being raked and dried

Standing there, looking at the wet, fermenting coffee, I was moved to ask the obvious question, “What do you do with all this wet coffee when it is fully fermented”?  The reply, appalling. “Oh, we put it into bags and haul it back to the village.” Yes, the wet coffee is loaded into burlap bags, then hauled by man or donkey back along the long, torturous track to the village. Ugh!

The wealthier families in Las Pilas have concrete drying patios outside their houses; poorer families had only tarps. On to these they pour their wet coffee, and for several days the woman and young children spread and rake it in the sun, turning it over and over to ensure that it dries evenly, thoroughly. When the coffee has been dried down to 12% moisture and a thin shell called parchment encapsulates each coffee bean, the producers pull the coffee off of the patios, return it to the burlap bags, then store it under cover until a truck can be found to make the four-hour trip to the warehouse in Jaltenango where it will be received and tested as I described above. And so the harvest is completed.

Fair Trade?

And that, in very brief, is an account of our trip, of the work of CESMACH and Equal Exchange in Chiapas, and of the nature of coffee production on an organic, shaded, terraced CESMACH farm in Las PIlas. Inspiring work, dogged work, yet work in which the folks at CESMACH, at Equal Exchange, and at Bloomingfoods all believe very strongly, for it embraces and attempts to harmonize the best of food, community, sustainability, and social justice.

And thus we return full circle to the primary theme and issue that took us to Chiapas in the first place: “Fair trade.” Is there fairness in this arrangement?  You decide. The farmer, using the most primitive manual methods can produce only a small amount of coffee, for which he is paid about $2 per pound in Jaltenango. If he endeavors to expand his production, the need for speed in the harvest forces him to pay hired help, thereby reducing his margin.  By the time the coffee has been hauled to Jaltenango, stored, hauled to the processing facility outside town, stored again, trucked to Vera Cruz and shipped to Equal Exchange facilities in Massachusetts, roasted, placed in vacuum-packed bags, then shipped to our stores, it’s price has gone to $10 per pound. The indigenous farmer on a remote hillside in Las Pilas has difficulty imagining all these processing stages, of fully grasping the complexity and expense inherent in international commerce. He sees only the endless hours he works to produce a few pounds of coffee for which he is paid $2 per pound yet which ultimately sells for $10 per pound. And he asks how this can be regarded as “fair,” for it is barely enough to provide his family with the essentials for life. And so they said to us as we left them there on their hillside, “You see now how hard we work. You see how poor we are. You taste how good the coffee is. Please pay us more”!  Yet in like fashion, a shopper in Bloomingfoods sees $9.99 per pound for Equal Exchange coffee and asks, how can this be “fair,” for it is $4 more per pound than the “coyote coffee” he knows is being sold in supermarkets. And so those customers say to us, “It costs too much. It is not fair. Please charge us less.”

Las Pilas donkey

There are no obvious and easy solutions to this situation, of course. Not if we desire the best possible coffee, and that it be produced without damage to the delicate environments in which it is grown, and that the men and women who produce it be able to earn a decent living without us having to pay $20 per pound. We present our observations from this little fact-finding adventure only to heighten the awareness of our customers, just as the experience heightened our own; and so that when you, the reader, walk through our polished and modern stores and see the coffee resting so brown and perfect in our bulk bins, maybe, just maybe, it will evoke in your mind’s eye the image of a patient, enduring farmer slowly leading a donkey laden with bags of soggy coffee beans up a dirt trail toward home as the sun sets behind the mountains, and the “price per pound” you see on our sign may indeed seem a little more, well, “fair.”

For more information about Equal Exchange and Fair Trade visit www.equalexchange.coop and www.SmallFarmersBigChange.coop.  And if your Spanish is up to it, check out the CESMACH site.

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The following reflection was written by Wells Neal, Senior Director National Market.


I continue to be happily surprised anytime I relearn the lesson that less is usually more


Such was the case, on a recent visit to a hospital/full care nursing facility account of ours in the Tug Hill plateau area of upstate NY. I was meeting at the request of the Food Service manager who is my contact there, in response to a complaint from many of the residents at the nursing home that our Vienna roast decaf was “too strong.”  When dealing with in- patient care, decaf is the dominant coffee consumed. In upstate NY, the phrase “too strong” is code for, “I wish you had a lighter roasted alternative.”  I proceeded, armed with medium roasted decaf samples to brew for a group tasting, along with the knowledge that we would soon have this new product and everyone would be happy. 


Having spent quite of bit of time over the past few years in nursing homes visiting loved ones, I was aware that as straightforward a visit as this one appeared to be for me, I knew it was a very important one to the residents. I’ll digress briefly, as this was a lesson I never fully appreciated until my own parents were in the position of requiring “full-care”.   As hard working people become less able to take care of themselves, it becomes increasingly more frustrating for them to accept that they can no longer participate in decisions that affect their lives; others have to do it for them.  Understandably, and perhaps for this generation in particular, many resent having to be in this position of forced deferral. 


As the group of octogenarians gathered around a table for the tasting, I began to serve coffee and talk about why I was there, who Equal Exchange is, and the story behind our coffee.  I started by telling the residents that I had driven the 90 miles to say hello because I was responding to their remarks about the coffee and I was hoping that I had an alternative that might work for them.  As the nurses’ aides were putting chips of ice in the coffee to cool it down, I began talking about Equal Exchange and thinking to myself, “this has got to be tight, right to the point, with no meandering!”  And so I started off by saying, “Equal Exchange is an organization of people that works directly with small farmers…” I was interrupted immediately by a very senior citizen who said quite stridently, “That’s good that you work with small farmers.  Small farmers need all the help they can get!” I looked around the table and decided that was it, sort of an “amen” moment.  They sipped the coffee and voted yes.

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In his article in the April issue of Peaceworks, “On Beyond Coffee: Fair Trade and Workers’ Rights in a Changing Economy,” Stephen Coats discusses some of the concerns raised by the labor movement over the expansion of the Fair Trade model to include large-scale producers. He raises the question of whether Fair Trade certification is the most effective strategy for improving worker conditions on plantations. “While Fair Trade certification is an important instrument for making positive change, the most fundamental issue for workers in the Global South is the rules of global trade. The terms of international trade agreements have an enormous impact on the lives and working conditions of the world’s producers. We need strong trade rules protecting workers’ right to organize in order for workers in every sector to achieve the kind of conditions that Fair Trade certifies.”


We can debate whether market-based approaches, such as Fair Trade, will achieve the desired effect of protecting farm workers and improving their conditions. But we do know for sure that strong labor laws (which are then respected and enforced) are by far the most important strategy toward ending discrimination and abuse of workers. Last week, the New York Times published an editorial about the on-going struggles for worker rights in this country and recent efforts to finally end the injustices to farmer and domestic workers.


In response to a recent organizing effort, described in the New York Times editorial, Rob Everts, Co-director of Equal Exchange, has written the following reflection of his days working with the United Farm Workers and some of the lessons learned in fighting against a few of the giants of the agro-industrial food system. He concludes by asking us to endorse a fledging new campaign which plans to, finally 70 years later, right worker injustices in the system.





I was introduced to the abuses of corporate agribusiness in the mid-1970’s, when at age 17, striking members of the United Farm Workers (UFW) brought the Gallo wine boycott to my home town in Northern California. For the next seven years, I threw myself into this campaign, working full-time with the UFW. It was just a first experience learning about the treatment of migrant farm workers and it left a deeply planted seed in my consciousness. This work greatly influenced the way I would spend my working hours ever since, including the last thirteen here at Equal Exchange.


Gallo was the largest wine grape grower in California. After signing an initial union contract following the historic grape boycott, the company set out to break the union. Strikebreakers were brought in from around the world, as far away as India. Crews were pitted against each other by nationality. Workers were beaten. It was decades before justice returned to Gallo workers.


I quickly learned who the dominant players in agriculture were: Tenneco Oil, United Brands (formerly the notorious United Fruit Company), Coca Cola, just to name a few. Conditions for migrant farm workers in the United States hadn’t changed in over 100 years. The only thing that changed was the backgrounds and skin colors of the workers: Chinese at the turn of the century, and then later, Filipinos, African Americans, Mexicans, Haitians, Central Americans. All were manipulated, all were exploited. Edward R. Murrow brought this injustice to the country’s attention with his devastating documentary “Harvest of Shame” which aired on CBS on Thanksgiving Day in 1960. Still, little changed.


Why has so little happened over so many decades to protect the rights of farm workers?

A recent editorial in the New York Times on April 6th, “Farm Workers’ Rights, 70 Years Overdue” asks the question and endorses an effort to right a longstanding wrong.“It is more than bank failures and rising unemployment that give these troubled times echoes of the 1930s. An unfinished labor battle from the New Deal is being waged again.


The goal is to win basic rights that farm and domestic workers were denied more than 70 years ago, when the Roosevelt administration won major reforms protecting other workers in areas like overtime and disability pay, days of rest and union organizing.

That inequality is a perverse holdover from the Jim Crow era. Segregationist Southern Democrats in Congress could not abide giving African-Americans, who then made up most of the farm and domestic labor force, an equal footing in the workplace with whites. President Roosevelt’s compromise simply wrote workers in those industries out of the New Deal.

They were thus sidelined from the labor movement, with predictable results. Though the Dixiecrats have all long since died or repented, the injustice they spawned has never been corrected. Poverty, brutal working conditions and legally sanctioned discrimination persist for new generations of laborers, who are now mostly Latino immigrants.

Despite the absence of a legal framework for unionization, the first and virtually only successful effort to unionize migrant workers was that waged by Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta and the many leaders they developed from the fields. Against all odds and with the support of millions of consumers around the world, who after strikes were violently broken, refused to eat non-union grapes for years on end, the United Farm Workers won union contracts for tens of thousands of grape pickers in 1970. Soon after the grape victory, thousands of workers in the lettuce industry joined the ranks, and over time UFW contracts covered many workers in the citrus, tree fruit, tomato and other industries.


Historical footnote of interest: President Nixon came to the aid of agribusiness in its efforts to defeat the boycott: his Defense Department purchased and shipped thousands upon thousands of pounds of grapes – that would have otherwise rotted in cold storage – to U.S. soldiers fighting in Vietnam. But to no avail.)


One point of this brief reflection is to recall the role consumers have played over the years in bringing change to an opaque and inequitable food system. Still, as consumers we are dangerously disconnected from where our food comes from. Recently, a drumbeat of health scares has added an element of enlightened self interest on the part of consumers to press for dramatic changes to the prevailing system.


All of these battles will require unprecedented collaboration between people and organizations seeking to democratize the process by which food is grown and brought from farm to table. Corporate agribusiness, like any self-respecting group of entrenched economic interests, will not easily give up its control. Corporations have a permanent interest in maintaining the status quo. The agribusiness giants who exploit migrant workers here are the same players who win trade agreements that force these workers—many formerly small farmers in the “global south”—off their land in the first place. All of us in this broad effort to transform the food system need to seek every opportunity to build off what unites us. For us at Equal Exchange, we are anchored by our commitment to build a stronger role for co-operatives throughout the food supply chain, but we too must reach out to other like-minded people and organizations if we are to have a chance at fulfilling our 20 year vision of “a vibrant, mutually cooperative community of two million committed participants, trading fairly $1 billion a year in a way that transforms the world.”


One step you can take right now is to become one of the first 1000 people to endorse the campaign mentioned above to extend labor law protections to agricultural and domestic workers.

Go to laborjustice2009@hotmail.com and:

  1. Email your full name (or the name of your organization) as you wish to see it published. (Your email address will not be published.)
  2. For “purposes of identification only” provide your title or occupation.
  3. Provide the name of your CITY and STATE (abbreviation). (Published with name)


Sí se puede!

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You are absolutely not going to believe this!


For over ten years now people have been trying to get the White House to dig up part of their lawn and plant an organic garden in its place. Finally, with the arrival of the Obamas, this dream is becoming a reality.


“A garden like this is one of those small gestures that is powerfully symbolic,” Michael Pollan, author of “Omnivores Dilemma” and vocal advocate for agricultural reform,” said in a recent article on the ABC news website. “At a time of economic crisis, a garden can provide a surprisingly large amount of fresh, healthy produce,” Pollan said. “But just as important, it teaches important habits of mind — helping people to reconnect with their food, eat more healthily on a budget and recognize that we’re less dependent on the industrial food chain, and cheap fossil fuel, than we assume.”

All good, right? Wrong.


Apparently, the idea of all that healthy produce being cultivated at the White House, and the message it would send to American consumers, was displeasing to chemical companies that produce pesticides.

We received the following email today from friends at the Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns.


Dear Friend,

The Mid America CropLife Association (MACA) has a bone to pick with Michelle Obama. MACA represents chemical companies that produce pesticides, and they are angry that – wait for it – Michelle Obama isn’t using chemicals in her organic garden at the White House.

I am not making this up.

In an email they forwarded to their supporters, a MACA spokesman wrote, “While a garden is a great idea, the thought of it being organic made [us] shudder.” MACA went on to publish a letter it had sent to the First Lady asking her to consider using chemicals — or what they call “crop protection products” — in her garden.

I just signed a petition telling MACA’s board members to stop using Michelle Obama’s garden to spread propaganda about produce needing to be sprayed with chemicals. I hope you will, too.

Please have a look and take action.


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The following article was written by Phyllis Robinson and Lilian Autler of Grassroots International.

Anita Cecila Garcia Cruz, of Confianza community
Member of the CEPCO General Assembly (photo courtesy of Grassroots International)


Times are tough for rural communities in Mexico right now – as they are for small farmers throughout the world. Fair Trade coffee co-operatives have long offered their members concrete benefits – higher prices, credit, social programs, political clout, access to international solidarity networks, etc. These benefits have enabled many participating farmers to improve their economic conditions and their quality of life. In today’s economic climate, however, small farmers are taking the proverbial “one step forward, two steps back.” International trade agreements, national agriculture and economic policies that favor agribusiness and multi-nationals over small businesses and local communities, are making it harder for farmers to stay on their land, afford basic food staples, and care for their families.


Perhaps today more than ever, the chances of survival for a small-scale farmer are greatly multiplied if, rather than going it alone, they join with others to form a co-operative. If that co-operative happens to grow organic coffee and is certified Fair Trade, even better. Alternative Trade Organizations used to boast the slogan “Trade not Aid,” conveying the message that Fair Trade could change the balance of power and enable small farmers to find market niches and compete successfully in the marketplace. There’s something powerful in that message, but unfortunately political and economic power seems to be increasingly concentrated in the hands of a few; not the other way around. (more…)

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The following article, by Rodney North, Public Relations Manager and Susan Sklar, Interfaith Program Manager, first appeared on April 2nd on the Jew and the Carrot blog.




On Passover every Jew is obligated to imagine that he or she had once been a slave in the land of Egypt. We try to envision the experience of our ancestors: the sadness of their lives under brutal day-to-day work conditions.  It’s unfortunate that in order for Jews (and others) to imagine slavery, we only need to look at slave labor conditions for cocoa workers in West Africa today, where 70% of the world’s cocoa is grown for the chocolate candy that many of us enjoy eating.  (more…)

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The following article by Stephen Coats, Director of the U.S. Labor Education in the Americas Project (US Leap), was published in the April 2009 Peacework Magazine, a publication of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC). We wish to thank the AFSC, one of our Interfaith partners, for their interest in exploring some of the complexities of the Fair Trade movement.  We also wish to thank Coats for providing us with a labor movement perspective on Fair Trade and workers’ rights, and for highlighting concerns of the labor movement about the Fair Trade certification of large-scale plantations, particularly in the banana industry. Coats suggests that if we truly want to see positive change for workers in the Global South, whether in farms or factories, we need to change the rules of trade. International trade agreements, such as NAFTA and CAFTA “have an enormous impact on the lives and working conditions of the world’s producers.” He concludes by arguing that it is critical that we “hold our governments accountable for strong labor and environmental standards in the agreements that increasingly regulate all global trade, fair and otherwise.”

 (In the same issue of Peaceworks, you can read another article about the Fair Trade movement:  “Eat Locally,  Think Globally:   Fair Trade, Food Sovereignty and the Food Crisis.”)


Tegucigalpa, Honduras, June 2003. Outside a negotiation meeting for the Central American Free Trade Agreement, demonstrators protest. Photo ©2009 Paul Jeffrey, http://www.kairosphotos.com

Consumers in the US have grown more concerned about and aware of the conditions under which the goods we purchase are produced. This increased consciousness has led to new models of production and consumption, and a variety of alternative product labels with respect to environmental issues (shade-grown coffee), health (organic produce), animal treatment (free-range chickens), and other concerns. Labels are intended to provide an easy way for consumers to know which products reflect our values.

These trends are now being extended to working conditions and the treatment of workers. In large part as a result of campaigns and news stories about sweatshops in the clothing industry, child labor in the coffee and banana sectors, and slave labor on cocoa plantations, companies have become increasingly concerned about their “brand image.” Consequently, a number of programs have emerged that certify that a product is produced under acceptable conditions of work.

Using consumer demand to push for better working conditions has proved to be a powerful approach; the “sweat-free” movement, fueled by college activists and workers’ rights advocates working together, has permanently raised the bar on what it means to be a “socially responsible” company. Through its Designated Suppliers Program, the anti-sweatshop movement created a set of standards, adopted by a growing number of universities and some municipalities, requiring that the goods purchased by these large institutions be bought from unionized or cooperative producers.

Fair Food

The most prominent consumer-oriented social certification in the US is Fair Trade, with a black and white label showing a figure holding evenly balanced scales. In the US, this label is managed by TransFair USA, a member of a consortium called the Fair Labeling Organizations which controls the label globally.

Non-profit groups interested in improving the conditions of small coffee farmers originated the Fair Trade movement in Western Europe. It has now expanded to other products and begun to evolve out of its origins as an “alternative” market into the mainstream. Fair Trade is a rapidly growing business, expanding its certification beyond coffee and cocoa to bananas, pineapples, and flowers, with plans to certify apparel.

Fair Trade activists sought out small, independent farms and cooperatives, and provided them with a way to reach consumers more directly, thus increasing their profits. Producers in the Fair Trade network are guaranteed a minimum price for their products, and also receive a cash “premium” to use as they wish — often this allows for improvements to production methods and to community services. In return for paying the higher price all this entails, consumers are guaranteed that the producers of their coffee were paid fairly and not deprived of their right to organize.

However, responding in part to growing consumer demand, Fair Trade has in recent years begun to certify food grown by different kinds of producers. For instance, almost all bananas imported to the US — a recent expansion area for Fair Trade — are grown on Latin American plantations, not on small farms or cooperatives. Some of the plantations which have earned the Fair Trade certification employ hundreds of workers.

While Fair Trade has added new criteria for certification that includes how the workers are treated and respect for their basic rights, the expansion of the Fair Trade model to large-scale producers has raised concerns in the labor movement, particularly with banana unions in Latin America (banana production is the most thoroughly unionized sector in Central America, with many active unions working in effective coalitions across national and ideological boundaries). Long-time Fair Trade supporters have raised additional concerns, including opposition to certification of products marketed by transnational corporations (e.g. Dole bananas or Starbucks coffee) and whether Fair Trade has erred in moving beyond small-scale producers to large employers like the banana plantations. These questions are being debated by trade unionists, representatives of the Fair Trade networks, and global labor activists, in an attempt to find a course that promotes environmental sustainability, human rights, and growth for the promising “Fair Trade” sector.

The Global Picture

While Fair Trade certification is an important instrument for making positive change, the most fundamental issue for workers in the Global South is the rules of global trade. The terms of international trade agreements have an enormous impact on the lives and working conditions of the world’s producers. We need strong trade rules protecting workers’ right to organize in order for workers in every sector to achieve the kind of conditions that Fair Trade certifies.

In this area, we have lost a lot of important ground with the passage of NAFTA and CAFTA, international agreements that represent steps backwards in the US’s ability to push for the enforcement of international labor standards. For instance, in 1999 when seven Guatemalan union leaders were threatened with murder and fled to the US, the US acted in accordance with existing trade law and withheld Guatemala’s trade benefits until the Guatemalan government had apprehended and tried the unionists’ attackers. Since the passage of CAFTA, however, there has been a resurgence in anti-labor violence in Guatemala (four trade unionists were assassinated in 2007 and another five in 2008, with no charges brought in any of the cases) and the US has not been able to apply any meaningful trade pressure to hold the Guatemalan government accountable.

For those of us in the US, this is a key moment to focus on the terms of global trade. While this issue is not yet foremost on the new Administration’s agenda, the debate is being framed for the consideration of several “bilateral” agreements between the US and other countries. Four agreements were negotiated by the Bush Administration. Only one, the Peru Agreement, has been passed. The good news is that these agreements are stronger than NAFTA and CAFTA on the protection of workers’ rights. The bad news is that they still aren’t strong enough. The Peru Agreement went into effect on February 1 of 2009, so this is an area for close observation.

Sustainability On the Line

Workers are extremely vulnerable to exploitation right now. In 2005, the international Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (also known as the “Multifibre Agreement”) came to an end. For 20 years this pact had provided quotas for the amount of clothing that each developing nation could export to wealthier European and North American markets. The World Trade Organization’s decision to phase it out has ushered in a period of intense competition among exporter nations, which translates as a “race to the bottom” to reduce labor costs. To this, of course, has been added the impact of the global recession, causing downward pressure on wages and working conditions for workers.

As Fair Trade activists have recognized from the beginning, workers’ rights and environmental sustainability are inseparable. In Latin America, banana workers’ unions understand this as well, and have been organizing to make the cultivation of bananas more biologically stable (bananas are grown in a monoculture which makes them particularly vulnerable to disease) and less destructive of ecosystems in the communities where the workers make their homes. To wield our greatest power as consumers, we must not only pay a surcharge on some items to cover their real cost — we must also drop a dime and call our Congress members. We need to hold our governments accountable for strong labor and environmental standards in the agreements that increasingly regulate all global trade, fair and otherwise.

To Get Involved

US LEAP supports those workers who are employed directly or indirectly by US companies producing for the US market.

Citizens Trade Campaign is a national coalition of environmental, labor, consumer, family farm, religious, and other civil society groups founded in 1992 to improve the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Global Trade Watch, a program of the consumer group Public Citizen, promotes a public interest perspective on globalization issues, including implications for our food, health and safety, environmental protection, economic justice, and democratic, accountable governance.

Maquila Solidarity Network, based in Canada, is a labor and women’s rights organization that supports the efforts of workers in global supply chains to win improved wages and working conditions and a better quality of life.

Equal Exchange is a leader in the Fair Trade coffee market and runs a lively blog on Fair Trade issues:  http://www.SmallFarmersBigChange.coop.


Stephen Coats is the director of the US Labor Education in the Americas Project, an organization that supports Latin American workers who are fighting to overcome poverty and make a better life for their families. USLEAP especially supports those workers who are employed directly or indirectly by US companies producing for the US market.


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In honor of April Fool’s Day… the following is a fictitious press release by Nick Reid that we wish were was actually factual:

In a press conference yesterday on Capitol Hill, Sen. Bernie Sanders announced his sponsorship of a bill that he describes as “part economic stimulus plan, part environmental protection bill and part Farm Bill reform”. The “Food for Change Bill” is actually a tax reform initiative that would allow certain food items to be considered tax-deductible expenditures. It is designed to increase the sales of socially- and environmentally-responsible food produced by small family farms.

Sen. Sanders spoke at a press conference, “America needs an economic stimulus plan that promotes sustainable agriculture, local economies and environmental responsibility. Family farms are an American institution and a pillar of our national heritage; today they are being strangled by corporate interests and agro-industrial parks that serve only to consolidate wealth into the hands of a few on Wall Street. Our food system is taking money away from the families and rural communities that need it most, while rewarding practices that are environmentally and socially destructive; practices that rely on genetically-modified crops, chemical pesticides and fertilizers, and irrigation practices that are draining our national aquifers beyond repair.”

“We must get our food – the very foundation of our existence -out of the hands of the corporate tyrants who have driven us to the economic and environmental crises we now face, and into the hands of the families and communities who have been swept aside in our race for cheap, chemically-enhanced food. We must see the value of vibrant, diverse farming communities, not only as the cradles of our civilization and producers of healthy, wholesome food, but as the backbone of stable, vibrant local economies.”

The Senator continued, “What is organic? Why do we choose to label food that is grown naturally, and not the food that is grown using chemicals and genetic manipulation? There is nothing conventional about Red Dye #5! Organic food one hundred years ago was called food! Why would you buy milk from a mechanized, Orwellian dairy lot the size of a small city, thousands of miles away, while local family-owned dairies are struggling to stay in business? Why shouldn’t the government support producers, retailers and consumers whose actions preserve the land and decrease CO2 emissions?! Why should our tax dollars go to subsidizing agro-behemoths, and not small family farmers?” (more…)

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